Home Rule movement
National MovementThe period from 1919-1947 is a historic in India’s freedom movement. it brought about a revolution- social economic, political and intellectual though with certain limitations.
it was a period when Indian nationalism entered a new phase. swaraj through struggle and sacrifice instead of pressure or appeal become the watchword of the movement for India’s independence. participation in the freedom movement was no more the monopoly of the educated middle class. common people, peasants and workers participated actively and workers participated actively and the freedom struggle become a mass movement.
the Russian revolution of 1917 had its own impact on the Indian national movement. it radicalized politics in India. the leftist movement began to take root in India. workers were organized in trade unions. the communist party and the congress socialist party were formed. student youth and peasants were organized and political ly motivated. thus a mass political movement began to take shape.
trade commerce and industry were growing. a bourgeois class came into being to play its role in the furtherance of the Indian political movement. Gandhi introduced new methods of struggle, particularly non-cooperation, passive resistance and satyagraha. he put forward a constructive program me to remove social evils like un touch ability.
however the national struggle for freedom suffered from many limitations. while the movement for national liberations was going deep into the masses, communal disharmony was raising its ugly head. the Hindu revivalists organized the Hindu mahasabha. at the same time the Muslim league become more active and aggressive in its communal tone.
separatism began to subvert national unity. communal roits occurred on a large. scale ata time when the national movement was passing through a delicate phase. communalism and separatism were poised against nationalism and radicalism, modernism and reformism and obscurantism counteracted nationalism. all this happed in 1920, the clatter events are merely culmination of this process.
In 1929, the congress proclaimed complete political aim of the freedom movement . all the conservative and reactionary elements gathered during the round table table conference at London to counter and sabotage this demand. The congress started the non-cooperation movement and satyagrah.
The government announced the communal award, which intensified the internal discord. Even the demand for a Muslim homeland, or Pakistan, was voiced. The communalists assured the crown of their loyalty and appealed it to frame a constitution for India. The act 1935was passed. It was described as charter of slavery for Indian by the nationalist force.
It was the last constitutional measure introduced by the British in India. The Hindu and Muslim communalists welcomed it. The right wing congressmen too welcomed it while socialists, communists and other leftist and radical elements were all out for resist the rightist forces.
the congress rebels came to power in the elections to provincial assemblies in 1937 and gave good proof of their ability as rulers. The communalists, who preached and assured loyalty all along to the British government, girded up their lions against the congress government.
while India was fighting for independence, v.d savarkar, president of the Hindu mahasabha and Mohammad Ali Jinnah, president of the Muslim league were competing with each other in propounding the two-nation theory. Savarkar had the honor of preceding Jinnah officially, proclaiming the creed of two nations. The league passed the Pakistan resolution in 1940.
After the congress leaders were arrested in 1942 as result of the quit Indian resolution, the nationalist elements resorted to violent means. Various proposals like the august offer, the crop’s proposals and the Wavell plan were offered to conciliate them. But no compromise could be reached.